ARMoriginally Acorn RISC Machinelater Advanced RISC Machineis a family of reduced instruction set computing RISC architectures for computer processorsconfigured for various environments. It also designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products.
Processors that have a RISC architecture typically require fewer transistors than those with a complex instruction set computing CISC architecture such as the x86 processors found in most personal computerswhich improves cost, power consumption, and heat dissipation. ARM Holdings periodically releases updates to architectures and core designs. All of them support a bit address space only pre-ARMv3 chips, made before ARM Holdings was formed, as in original Acorn Archimedeshad smaller and bit arithmetic; instructions for ARM Holdings' cores have bit fixed-length instructions, but later versions of the architecture also support a variable-length instruction set that provides both and bit instructions for improved code density.
Some older cores can also provide hardware execution of Java bytecodes. The ARMv8-A architecture, announced in October adds support for a bit address space and bit arithmetic with its new bit fixed-length instruction set. With over billion ARM processors produced as of [update]ARM is the most widely used instruction set architecture in terms of quantity produced. The British computer manufacturer Acorn Computers first developed the Acorn RISC Machine architecture ARM   in the s to use in its personal computers.
Its first ARM-based products were coprocessor modules for the BBC Micro series of computers. After the successful BBC Micro computer, Acorn Computers considered how to move on from the relatively simple MOS Technology processor to address business markets like the one that was soon dominated by the IBM PClaunched in The Acorn Business Computer ABC plan required that a number of second processors be made to work with the BBC Micro platform, but processors such as the Motorola and National Semiconductor were considered unsuitable, and the was not powerful enough for a graphics-based user interface.
After testing all available processors and finding them lacking, Acorn decided it needed a new architecture. Inspired by papers from the Berkeley RISC project, Acorn considered designing its own processor. Wilson developed the instruction set, writing a simulation of the processor in BBC BASIC that ran on a BBC Micro with a second processor. This convinced Acorn engineers they were on the right track.
Wilson approached Acorn's CEO, Hermann Hauserand requested more resources. Hauser gave his approval and assembled a small team to implement Wilson's model in hardware. The official Acorn RISC Machine project started in October They chose VLSI Technology as the silicon partneras they were a source of ROMs and custom chips for Acorn. Wilson and Furber led the design. They implemented it with a similar efficiency ethos as the The 's memory access architecture had let developers produce fast machines without costly direct memory access DMA hardware.
The first samples of ARM silicon worked properly when first received and tested on 26 April The first ARM application was as a second processor for the BBC Micro, where it helped in developing simulation software to finish development of the support chips VIDC, IOC, MEMCand sped up the CAD software used in ARM2 development.
Wilson subsequently rewrote BBC BASIC in ARM assembly language. The in-depth knowledge gained from designing the instruction set enabled the code to be very dense, making ARM BBC BASIC an extremely good test for any ARM emulator. The original aim of a principally ARM-based computer was achieved in with the release of the Acorn Archimedes.
This simplicity enabled low power consumption, yet better performance than the Intel In the late s Apple Computer and VLSI Technology started working with Acorn on newer versions of the ARM core. InAcorn spun off the design team into a new company named Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. Apple used the ARM6-based ARM as the basis for their Apple Newton PDA.
InAcorn used the ARM as the main central processing unit CPU in their RiscPC computers. DEC licensed the ARM6 architecture and produced the StrongARM. This work was later passed to Intel as part of a lawsuit settlement, and Intel took the opportunity to supplement their i line with the StrongARM. Intel later developed its own high performance implementation named XScale, which it has since sold to Marvell. Inthe bit ARM architecture was the most widely used architecture in mobile devices and the most popular bit one in embedded systems.
ARM Holdings' primary business is selling IP coreswhich licensees use to create microcontrollers MCUsCPUsand systems-on-chips based on those cores. The original design manufacturer combines the ARM core with other parts to produce a complete device, typically one that can be built in existing Semiconductor fabrication plants fabs at low cost and still deliver substantial performance.
The most successful implementation has been the ARM7TDMI with hundreds of millions sold. Atmel has been a precursor design center in the ARM7TDMI-based embedded system. The ARM architectures used in smartphones, PDAs and other mobile devices range from ARMv5 to ARMv7-Aused in low-end and midrange devices, to ARMv8-A used in current high-end devices.
Insome manufacturers introduced netbooks based on ARM architecture CPUs, in direct competition with netbooks based on Intel Atom. ARM Holdings offers a variety of licensing terms, varying in cost and deliverables. ARM Holdings provides to all licensees an integratable hardware description of the ARM core as well as complete software development toolset compilerdebuggersoftware development kit and the right to sell manufactured silicon containing the ARM CPU.
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SoC packages integrating ARM's core designs include Nvidia Tegra's first three generations, CSR plc's Quatro family, ST-Ericsson's Nova and NovaThor, Silicon Labs's Precision32 MCU, Texas Instruments's OMAP products, Samsung's Hummingbird and Exynos products, Apple's A4A5and A5Xand Freescale's i. Fabless licenseeswho wish to integrate an ARM core into their own chip design, are usually only interested in acquiring a ready-to-manufacture verified IP core. For these customers, ARM Holdings delivers a gate netlist description of the chosen ARM core, along with an abstracted simulation model and test programs to aid design integration and verification.
More ambitious customers, including integrated device manufacturers IDM and foundry operators, choose to acquire the processor IP in synthesizable RTL Verilog form. With the synthesizable RTL, the customer has the ability to perform architectural level optimisations and extensions. This allows the designer to achieve exotic design goals not otherwise possible with an unmodified netlist high clock speedvery low power consumption, instruction set extensions, etc. While ARM Holdings does not grant the licensee the right to resell the ARM architecture itself, licensees may freely sell manufactured product such as chip devices, evaluation boards and complete systems.
Merchant foundries can be a special case; not only are they allowed to sell finished silicon containing ARM cores, they generally hold the right to re-manufacture ARM cores for other customers.
ARM Holdings prices its IP based on perceived value. Lower performing ARM cores typically have lower licence costs than higher performing cores. In implementation terms, a synthesizable core costs more than a hard macro blackbox core. Complicating price matters, a merchant foundry that holds an ARM licence, such as Samsung or Fujitsu, can offer fab customers reduced licensing costs. In exchange for acquiring the ARM core through the foundry's in-house design services, the customer can reduce or eliminate payment of ARM's upfront licence fee.
For high volume mass-produced parts, the long term cost reduction achievable through lower wafer pricing reduces the impact of ARM's NRE Non-Recurring Engineering costs, making the dedicated foundry a better choice. Companies that have designed chips with ARM cores include Amazon. Companies can also obtain an ARM architectural licence for designing their own CPU cores using the ARM instruction sets.
These cores must comply fully with the ARM architecture. Companies that have designed cores that implement an ARM architecture include Apple, AppliedMicro, Broadcom, Cavium, Nvidia, Qualcomm, and Samsung Electronics. ARM Holdings provides a list of vendors who implement ARM cores in their design application specific standard products ASSPmicroprocessor and microcontrollers.
ARM cores are used in a number of products, particularly PDAs and smartphones. Some computing examples are Microsoft 's first generation Surface and Surface 2Apple 's iPadsand Asus 's Eee Pad Transformer tablet computers. Others include Apple's iPhone smartphone and iPod portable media playerCanon PowerShot digital camerasNintendo DS handheld game consoles and TomTom turn-by-turn navigation systems.
InARM Holdings took part in the development of Manchester University 's computer SpiNNakerwhich used ARM cores to simulate the human brain. ARM chips are also used in Raspberry PiBeagleBoardBeagleBonePandaBoard and other single-board computersbecause they are very small, inexpensive and consume very little power.
The bit ARM architecture, such as ARMv7-Awas the most widely used architecture in mobile devices as of [update]. Sincethe ARM Architecture Reference Manual has been the primary source of documentation on the ARM processor architecture and instruction set, distinguishing interfaces that all ARM processors are required to support such as instruction semantics from implementation details that may vary.
The architecture has evolved over time, and version seven of the architecture, ARMv7, defines three architecture "profiles":.
Except in the M-profile, the bit ARM architecture specifies several CPU modes, depending on the implemented architecture features. At any moment in time, the CPU can be in only one mode, but it can switch modes due to external events interrupts or programmatically. The original and subsequent ARM implementation was hardwired without microcodelike the much simpler 8-bit processor used in prior Acorn microcomputers.
The bit ARM architecture and the bit architecture for the most part includes the following RISC features:. To compensate for the simpler design, compared with processors like the Intel and Motorolasome additional design features were used:. ARM includes integer arithmetic operations for add, subtract, and multiply; some versions of the architecture also support divide operations.
Registers R8 through R12 are the same across all CPU modes except FIQ mode. FIQ mode has its own distinct R8 through R12 registers. R13 and R14 are banked across all privileged CPU modes except system mode. That is, each mode that can be entered because of an exception has its own R13 and R These registers generally contain the stack pointer and the return address from function calls, respectively. Almost every ARM instruction has a conditional execution feature called predicationwhich is implemented with a 4-bit condition code selector the predicate.
To allow for unconditional execution, one of the four-bit codes causes the instruction to be always executed. Most other CPU architectures only have condition codes on branch instructions. The standard example of conditional execution is the subtraction-based Euclidean algorithm:. In the C programming languagethe loop is:. For ARM assemblythe loop can be effectively transformed into:. If Ri and Rj are equal then neither of the SUB instructions will be executed, eliminating the need for a conditional branch to implement the while check at the top of the loop, for example had SUBLE less than or equal been used.
One of the ways that Thumb code provides a more dense encoding is to remove the four bit selector from non-branch instructions. Another feature of the instruction set is the ability to fold shifts and rotates into the "data processing" arithmetic, logical, and register-register move instructions, so that, for example, the C statement. This results in the typical ARM program being denser than expected with fewer memory accesses; thus the pipeline is used more efficiently.
The ARM instruction set has increased over time. Some early ARM processors before ARM7TDMIfor example, have no instruction to store a two-byte quantity. The ARM7 and earlier implementations have a three-stage pipeline ; the stages being fetch, decode and execute. Higher-performance designs, such as the ARM9, have deeper pipelines: Cortex-A8 has thirteen stages.
Additional implementation changes for higher performance include a faster adder and more extensive branch prediction logic. The difference between the ARM7DI and ARM7DMI cores, for example, was an improved multiplier; hence the added "M".
The ARM architecture pre-ARMv8 provides a non-intrusive way of extending the clubpenguinhq moneymaker 2016 set using "coprocessors" that can be addressed using MCR, MRC, MRRC, MCRR and similar instructions.
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In ARM-based machines, peripheral devices are usually attached to the processor by mapping their physical registers into ARM memory space, into the coprocessor space, or by connecting to another device a bus that in turn attaches to the processor. Coprocessor accesses have lower latency, so some peripherals—for example, an XScale interrupt controller—are accessible in both ways: In other cases, chip designers good shares to buy asx integrate hardware using the coprocessor mechanism.
For example, an image processing engine might be a small ARM7TDMI core combined with a coprocessor that has specialised operations to support a specific set of HDTV transcoding primitives. All modern ARM processors include hardware debugging facilities, allowing software debuggers to perform operations such as halting, stepping, and breakpointing of code starting from reset.
These facilities are built using JTAG support, though some newer cores optionally support ARM's own two-wire "SWD" protocol. In ARM7TDMI cores, the "D" represented JTAG debug support, and the "I" represented presence of an "EmbeddedICE" debug module. For ARM7 and ARM9 core generations, EmbeddedICE over JTAG was a de facto debug standard, though not architecturally guaranteed. The ARMv7 architecture defines basic debug facilities at an architectural level.
These include breakpoints, watchpoints and instruction execution in a "Debug Mode"; similar facilities were also available with EmbeddedICE.
Both "halt mode" and "monitor" how much money does a notary public make debugging are supported.
The actual transport mechanism used to access the debug facilities is not architecturally specified, but implementations generally include JTAG support. There is a separate ARM "CoreSight" debug architecture, which is not architecturally required by ARMv7 processors. To improve the ARM architecture for digital signal processing and multimedia applications, DSP instructions were added to the set.
E-variants also imply T, D, M and I. The new instructions are common in digital signal processor DSP architectures. They include variations on signed multiply—accumulatesaturated add and subtract, and count leading zeros. Introduced in the ARMv6 architecture, this was a precursor to Advanced Arm holdings market share, also known as NEON.
Jazelle DBX Direct Bytecode eXecution is a technique that allows Java Bytecode to be executed directly in the ARM architecture as a third execution state and instruction set alongside the existing ARM and Thumb-mode.
Support for this state is signified by the "J" in the ARMv5TEJ architecture, and in ARM9EJ-S and ARM7EJ-S core names. Support for this state is required starting in ARMv6 except for the ARMv7-M profilethough newer cores only include a trivial implementation that provides no hardware acceleration. To improve compiled code-density, processors since the ARM7TDMI released in  have featured the Thumb instruction set, which have their own state. The "T" in "TDMI" indicates the Thumb feature.
When in this state, the processor executes the Thumb instruction set, a compact bit encoding for a subset of the ARM instruction set. The space-saving comes from making some of the instruction operands implicit and limiting the number of possibilities compared to the ARM instructions executed in the ARM instruction set state.
In Thumb, the bit opcodes have less functionality. For eu ets cap and trade system, only branches can be conditional, and many opcodes are restricted to accessing only half of all of the CPU's as a win win trade binary options registers.
The shorter opcodes give improved code density overall, even though some operations require extra instructions. Embedded hardware, market opp stock as the Game Boy Advancetypically have a small amount of RAM accessible with a full bit datapath; the majority is accessed via a bit or narrower secondary datapath.
In this situation, it usually makes sense to compile Thumb code and hand-optimise a few of the most CPU-intensive sections using full bit ARM instructions, placing these wider instructions into the bit bus accessible memory. The first processor with a Thumb instruction decoder was the ARM7TDMI. All ARM9 and later families, including XScale, have included a Thumb instruction decoder. Thumb-2 extends the limited bit instruction set of Thumb with additional bit instructions to give the instruction set more breadth, thus producing a variable-length instruction set.
A stated aim for Thumb-2 was to achieve code density similar to Thumb with performance similar to the ARM instruction set on bit memory. Thumb-2 extends the Thumb instruction set with bit-field manipulation, table branches and conditional execution. At the same time, the ARM instruction set was extended to maintain equivalent functionality in both instruction sets. A new "Unified Assembly Language" UAL supports generation of either Thumb or ARM instructions from the same source code; versions of Thumb seen on ARMv7 processors are essentially as capable as ARM code including the ability to write interrupt handlers.
This requires a bit of care, and use of a new "IT" if-then instruction, which permits up to four successive instructions to execute based on a tested condition, or on its inverse.
When compiling into ARM code, this is ignored, but when compiling into Thumb it generates an actual instruction. All ARMv7 chips support the Thumb instruction set. All chips in the Cortex-A series, Cortex-R series, and ARM11 series support both "ARM instruction set state" and "Thumb instruction set state", while chips in the Cortex-M series support only the Thumb instruction set. ThumbEE erroneously called Thumb-2EE in some ARM documentationmarketed as Jazelle RCT Runtime Compilation Targetwas announced infirst appearing in the Cortex-A8 processor.
ThumbEE is a fourth instruction set state, making small changes to the Thumb-2 extended instruction set. These changes make the instruction set particularly suited to code generated at runtime e. ThumbEE is a target for languages such as JavaCPerland Pythonand allows JIT compilers to output smaller compiled code without impacting performance.
New features provided by ThumbEE include automatic null pointer checks on every load and store instruction, an instruction to perform an array bounds check, and special instructions that call a handler.
These changes come from repurposing a handful of opcodes, and knowing the core is in the new ThumbEE state. On 23 NovemberARM Holdings deprecated any use of the ThumbEE instruction set,  and ARMv8 removes support for ThumbEE.
VFP Vector Floating Point technology is an FPU Floating-Point Unit coprocessor extension to the ARM architecture  implemented differently in ARMv8 - coprocessors not defined there. VFP provides floating-point computation suitable for a wide spectrum of applications such as PDAs, smartphones, voice compression and decompression, three-dimensional graphics and digital audio, printers, set-top boxes, and automotive applications.
The VFP architecture was intended to support execution of short "vector mode" instructions but these operated on each vector element sequentially and thus did not offer the performance of true single instruction, multiple data SIMD vector parallelism.
This vector mode was therefore removed shortly after its introduction,  to be replaced with the much more powerful NEON Advanced SIMD unit. Some forex courses in singapore such as the ARM Cortex-A8 have a cut-down VFPLite module instead of a full VFP module, and require roughly ten times more clock cycles per float operation.
They provide some of the same functionality as VFP but are not opcode -compatible with it. In Debian Linux, and derivatives such as Ubuntuarmhf ARM hard float refers to the ARMv7 architecture including the additional VFP3-D16 floating-point hardware extension and Thumb-2 above.
Software packages and cross-compiler tools use the armhf vs. The Advanced SIMD extension aka NEON or "MPE" Media Processing Engine is a combined and bit SIMD instruction set that provides standardized acceleration for media and signal processing applications.
NEON is included in all Cortex-A8 devices but is optional in Cortex-A9 devices. It features a comprehensive instruction set, 777 binary options system one ladder racks register files and independent execution hardware. The NEON hardware shares the same floating-point registers as used in VFP. ProjectNe10 is ARM's first open source project from its inception.
The Ne10 library is a set of common, useful functions written in both NEON and C for compatibility. The library was created to allow developers to use NEON optimisations without learning NEON but it also serves as a set of highly optimised NEON intrinsic and assembly code examples for common DSP, arithmetic and image processing routines.
The code is available on GitHub. The Security Extensions, marketed as TrustZone Technology, is in ARMv6KZ and later application profile architectures. It provides a low-cost alternative to adding another dedicated security core to an SoC, by providing two virtual processors backed by hardware based access control.
This lets the application core switch between two states, referred to as worlds to reduce confusion with other names for capability domainsin order to prevent information from leaking from the more trusted world to the less trusted world. This world switch is generally orthogonal to all other capabilities of the processor, thus each world can operate independently of the other while using the same core.
Memory and peripherals are then made aware of the operating world of the core and may use this to provide access control to secrets and code on the device. Typically, a rich operating system is run in the less trusted world, with smaller security-specialized code in the release earnest money escrow agreement trusted world, aiming to reduce the attack surface.
Typical applications include DRM functionality for controlling the use of media on ARM-based devices,  and preventing any unapproved use of the device. One option for the more trusted world is TrustZone Software, a TrustZone optimised version of the Trusted Foundations Software developed by Trusted Logic Mobility. Trusted Foundations Software was acquired by Gemalto. In practice, since the specific implementation details of proprietary TrustZone implementations have not been publicly disclosed for review, it is unclear what level of assurance is provided for a given threat modelbut they are not immune from attack.
Open Virtualization  and T6  are open source implementations of the trusted world architecture for TrustZone. AMD has licensed and incorprorated TrustZone technology into its Secure Processor Technology. Samsung Knox uses TrustZone for purposes such as detecting modifications to the kernel. The Security Extension, marketed as TrustZone for ARMv8-M Technology, was introduced in the ARMv8-M architecture.
As of ARMv6, the ARM architecture supports no-execute page protectionwhich is referred to as XNfor eXecute Never. The Large Physical Address Extension LPAEwhich extends the physical address size from 32 bits to 40 bits, was added to the ARMv7-A architecture in The ARMv8-R and ARMv8-M sub-architectures, announced after the ARMv8-A sub-architecture, share some features with ARMv8-A, but don't include any bit AArch64 instructions. Announced in October ARMv8-A often called ARMv8 while the ARMv8-R is also available represents a fundamental change to the ARM architecture.
It adds an optional bit architecture e. Cortex-A32 is a bit ARMv8-A CPU  while most ARMv8-A CPUs support bit, unlike all ARMv8-Rnamed "AArch64", and the associated new "A64" instruction set.
AArch64 provides user-space compatibility with ARMv7-A, the bit architecture, therein referred to as "AArch32" and the old bit instruction set, now named "A32". The Thumb instruction sets are referred to as "T32" and have no bit counterpart. ARMv8-A allows bit applications to be executed in a bit OS, and a bit OS to be under the control of a bit hypervisor. AppliedMicrousing an FPGAwas the first to demo ARMv8-A.
LITTLE configuration; but it will run only in AArch32 mode. AArch64 was introduced in ARMv8-A and is included in subsequent versions of ARMV8-A. AArch64 is not included in ARMv8-R or ARMv8-M, because they are both bit architectures. In DecemberARMv8. The enhancements fell into two categories: In JanuaryARMv8.
Its enhancements fell into six categories: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Australian architectural firm, see ARM Architecture Ashton Raggatt McDougall.
List of ARM microarchitectures. This compatibility mode optional in ARMv4, and removed entirely in ARMv5. List of applications of ARM cores. Comparison of ARMv7-A cores. CMP RiRj ; set condition "NE" if i! Comparison of ARMv8-A cores. Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 1 July Acorn RISC Machine Family Data Manual. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 26 May Eight would-be giant killers".
Retrieved 7 March From Inception to IPO" PDF. Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 15 March Co-verification of hardware and software for ARM SoC design. ARM started as a branch of Acorn Computer in Cambridge, England, with the formation of a joint venture between Acorn, Apple and VLSI Technology. A team of twelve employees produced the design of the first ARM microprocessor between and Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 6 October Communications of the ACM. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 27 October Retrieved November 10, Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 18 April ARM Architecture Reference Manual.
Archived from the original on 15 April New Bit Thumb-2EE Instructions Conserve System Memory" by Tom R. Retrieved 20 August Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 14 June Full TrustZone exploit for MSM".
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TrustZone Based Trusted Kernel". Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 6 July Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 29 December It will be a bit version, running on Qualcomm's latest and greatest processors probably the Snapdragonand the way Microsoft describes [.
Linux kernel mailing list. Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 16 January List of books about ARM Cortex-M. ARM Holdings ARM architecture List of ARM microarchitectures List of applications of ARM cores ARM Cortex-A ARM Cortex-R ARM Cortex-M Comparison of ARMv7-A cores Comparison of ARMv8-A cores. Allwinner A1x Apple A4 Freescale i.
MX5 Rockchip RKx Samsung Exynos S5PCS5PV Texas Instruments OMAP 3 ZiiLABS ZMS MediaTek MT, MT Mstar 6A Rockchip RK Apple A6A6XS1 Broadcom Brahma-B15 Marvell P4J Qualcomm Snapdragon S1, S2, S3, S4 Plus, S4 Pro,ScorpionKrait. AMD Opteron Aseries Freescale QorIQ LS20xx Nvidia Tegra X1 Qualcomm SnapdragonSamsung Exynos 7 HiSilicon Kirin 95 x MediaTek Helio X2 xMT x Mstar 6A Qualcomm Snapdragon 65 x Rockchip RK HiSilicon Kirin MediaTek Helio X Apple A7 to A10 Applied Micro X-Gene Cavium ThunderX CN87xx, CN88xx Nvidia Tegra K1 Project Denver NXP i.
MX 8 Qualcomm Kryo Samsung Mongoose. ARM Holdings ARM architecture List of ARM cores ARM Cortex-A ARM Cortex-R ARM Cortex-M List of ARM Cortex-M development tools. Cypress PSoC 4, 4M, 4L Infineon XMC Nordic nRF51 NXP LPC11xx, LPC12xx nuvoTon NuMicro Sonix SN32F STMicroelectronics STM32 F0 Toshiba TX00 Vorago VAx0.
Actel SmartFusion, SmartFusion 2 Analog Devices ADuCM3xx Atmel SAM 3A-3N-3S-3U-3X Cypress PSoC 5, 5LP, FM3 Fujitsu FM3 Holtek HT32F NXP LPC13xx, LPC17xx, LPC18xx ON Semiconductor Q32M Silicon Labs Precision32 Silicon Labs EFM32 Tiny, Gecko, Leopard, Giant STMicroelectronics STM32 F1, F2, L1, W Texas Instruments F28, LM3, TMS, OMAP 4 Toshiba TX Atmel SAM ESV70 NXP Kinetis KV5x STMicroelectronics STM32 F7, H7.
Scaleo OLEA Texas Instruments RM57 Xilinx ZynqMP. Atmel SAM7L, SAM7S, SAM7SE, SAM7X, SAM7XCAT91CAP7AT91M, AT91R NXP LPC21xx, LPC22xx, LPC23xx, LPC24xxLH7 STMicroelectronics STR7. Atmel SAM9G, SAM9M, SAM9N, SAM9R, SAM9X, SAM9XE, SAMxAT91CAP9 Freescale i. Broadcom BCM Freescale i. Amber open FPGA core. Reduced instruction set computer RISC architectures. Alpha AMD Am Apollo PRISM Atmel AVR32 Berkeley RISC Clipper CRISP DEC Prism Intel i Intel i MIPS-X Motorola PA-RISC ROMP Stanford MIPS. Single-board microcontroller Special function register.
Am ARM Cortex-M AVR32 ColdFire CRX FR FR-V H8SX M32R MPC5xx PIC32 PowerPC Propeller TLCS TriCore V In-circuit serial programming ICSP In-system programming ISP Program and Debug Interface PDI High-voltage serial programming HVSP High voltage parallel programming HVPP Bootloader ROM aWire.
Embedded system Programmable logic controller. ASIP CISC RISC EDGE TRIPS VLIW EPIC MISC OISC NISC ZISC Comparison. Instruction pipelining Bubble Operand forwarding Out-of-order execution Register renaming Speculative execution Branch predictor Memory dependence prediction Hazards.
Bit Bit-serial Word Instruction Pipelining Scalar Superscalar Task Thread Process Data Vector Memory. Temporal Simultaneous SMT Hyper-threading Speculative SpMT Preemptive Cooperative Clustered Multi-Thread CMT Hardware scout.
SISD SIMD SWAR SIMT MISD MIMD SPMD Addressing mode. Instructions per second IPS Instructions per clock IPC Cycles per instruction CPI Floating-point operations per second FLOPS Transactions per second TPS SUPS Performance per watt Orders of magnitude computing Cache performance measurement and metric.
Single-core processor Multi-core processor Manycore processor. Execution unit EU Arithmetic logic unit ALU Address generation unit AGU Floating-point unit FPU Load-store unit LSU Fixed-point unit FXU Vector unit VU Branch predictor Branch execution unit BEU Instruction Decoder Instruction Scheduler Instruction Fetch Unit Instruction Dispatch Unit Instruction Sequencing Unit Unified Reservation Station Barrel shifter Uncore Sum addressed decoder SAD Front-side bus Back-side bus Northbridge computing Southbridge computing Adder electronics Binary multiplier Binary decoder Address decoder Multiplexer Demultiplexer Registers Cache Memory management unit MMU Input—output memory management unit IOMMU Integrated Memory Controller IMC Power Management Unit PMU Translation lookaside buffer TLB Stack engine Register file Processor register Hardware register Memory buffer register MBR Program counter Microcode ROM Datapath Control unit Instruction unit Re-order buffer Data buffer Write buffer Coprocessor Electronic switch Electronic circuit Integrated circuit Three-dimensional integrated circuit Boolean circuit Digital circuit Analog circuit Mixed-signal integrated circuit Power management integrated circuit Quantum circuit Logic gate Combinational logic Sequential logic Emitter-coupled logic ECL Transistor—transistor logic TTL Glue logic Quantum gate Gate array Counter digital Bus computing Semiconductor device Clock rate CPU multiplier.
APM ACPI Dynamic frequency scaling Dynamic voltage scaling Clock gating. Non-executable memory NX bit Bounds checking Intel MPX Intel Secure Key Hardware restriction firmware Software Guard Extensions Intel SGX Trusted Execution Technology OmniShield Trusted Platform Module TPM Secure cryptoprocessor Hardware security module Hengzhi chip.
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